miércoles, 29 de agosto de 2007

"Populando" la PCB


Ahora vamos a ver como popular la PCB. Acá entra en acción una herramienta que considero muy útil, es la llamada "Third Hand" (tercera mano). Es muy cómodo trabajar con ella. Lo que hago yo es poner la placa entre las dos pinzas de cocodrilo, con la cara de las pistas mirando hacia arriba, por lo tanto para insertar los componentes tenés que dar vuelta toda la herramienta, para que después cuando tengas que soldar la herramienta esté en su posición normal. Luego de soldar, solo falta cortar el exceso de "patita" con un alicate.

La técnica de soldar es sencilla, primero enchufas el soldador, y esperás unos minutos hasta que caliente. Luego alimentás la punta del soldador con un poquito de estanio como para recubrirlo una sola vez. Después calentás rápidamente el lugar donde va a ir la soldadura (en nuestro caso la unión de la patita del componente y la pista), y luego con la otra mano vas "alimentando" el soldador con estanio. Es cuestión de práctica hasta que le tomés la mano. TENÉ CUIDADO PORQUE EL SOLDADOR SE ENCUENTRA A UNA TEMPERATURA MUY ALTA. Cada tanto te va a pasar que la soldadura no "agarra". Lo que tenés que hacer es tratar un poco más, y sino limpiar el estanio de la punta del soldador con una esponja húmeda, o refregar el soldador contra algo metálico para que el estanio se vaya. Para la esponja podés usar la que traen los soportes de los soldadores . Es recomendable que tengas un soporte para el soldador, para apoyarlo cuando no lo estés usando.




En general el orden para soldar es el siguiente:

-Sócalos de Circuitos Integrados y trimpots
-Resistencias
-Capacitores
-Diodos/Transistores

-Sócalos de Circuitos Integrados y trimpots: Estos componentes no tienen demasiada ciencia. Con respecto a los sócalos tenés que ir tanteando en la placa hasta que los pines se acomoden a los agujeros. Luego soldar patita por patita teniendo cuidado de que no se toquen las soldaduras. Te recomiendo que soldés las patitas de arriba hacia abajo. Las pines se cuentan como en la foto. Ah, y no te olvides de poner el integrado en el socalo cuando terminas, sino el pedal no funka:P!

En cuanto a los trimpots, hay varios formatos. Recordemos que un trimpot es un potenciómetro pero para la placa. Estos se usan en la placa, ya que solamente hay que ajustarlos una vez. Los hay de una vuelta y de multivuelta, los primero usan solamente una vuelta para abarcar el rango de resistencia, en cambio los multivueltas usan varias vueltas permitiendo mayor precisión. También hay verticales y horizontales . Generalmente usaremos una vuelta y verticales, ya que son más cómodos. Generalmente los layout ya vienen preparados para la disposición de las patas del trimpot, por lo que también tendrás que tantear. Puede que te suceda que cuando das vuelta la placa para soldar, el componente se caiga. En este caso cuando lo pongas dobla las patitas un poco como para que cuando des vuelta la placa el componente no se caiga.

-Resistencias: Las resistencias que generalmente usaremos para los efectos son de Carbon y 1/4 Watt. Las hay también de Metal Film, y se dice que tienen mejor calidad, pero son más caras, y la diferencia es rara vez notable.
Poné todas las resistencias y después soldalas. Las resistencias no se dañan por el exceso de calor, por lo que no tendrías que preocuparte de sobrecalentarlas.
Para identificar a las resistencias podés usar o bien un tester digital para medir la resistencia en ohms, o podés guiarte por las bandas de colores.




-Capacitores: Los capacitores que usaremos son: cerámicos para los valores de pF, film polyester para los valores chicos, y electrolíticos para los valores a partir de 1uF. Tambíen hay cerámicos para los valores chicos, pero para circuitos de audio se usan de film polyester, así que asegurate que todos los capacitores que te den sean de polyester.


-Cerámicos





-Fiml Polyester








-Electrolítico





-Diodos: Los diodos son muy pequeños. Estos componentes son sensibles al calor. Tratá de no sobrecalentarlos. Si te olvidastes que diodo tenes en la mano, con una lupa podes ver la descripción impresa en el cuerpo.


-Transistores: Son los componentes más dificiles de soldar. En general todos son fáciles, pero este presenta un poco más de dificultad. Los problemas que se presentan son: por un lado son muy sensibles al calor, por lo que tenes que tener cuidado, y por el otro tiene tres patitas que están muy pegadas y sin querer podemos "conectar" sus soldaduras en la PCB.



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